Lifecycle of a cross-chain call
Blockchains by their nature are siloed environments that cannot directly communicate with each other. That is why any messaging protocol is a complex set of components, making any cross-chain transaction a multistage process, so just initiating a cross-chain transaction typically is not enough. It is important to understand how the deBridge infrastructure works so you can manage your submissions (either manually or even automatically) consciously and confidently.
The following scheme visualizes a normal cycle of a typical cross-chain call, as it may look for the conceptual cross-chain dApp where Incrementor is used as an example of the smart contract that sends a cross-chain message:
Lifecycle of a cross-chain message transfer
When a call to the
deBridgeGate.send()method is made on the origin chain, the gate contract validates the input (its args and the
autoParamsstruct), and if everything is correct (the data is unambiguous, the input asset covers the fees, etc), a special
Sentevent is emitted. This event exposes the following details of the submission:
submissionId, the identifier of the cross-chain transaction you've initiated;
debridgeId, the cross-chain identifier of the input asset, needed to correctly handle tokens across supported chains;
- args and the
autoParamsstructure that contains information about the passed message.
You are advised to monitor this event to ensure your submission has been accepted and the cross-chain transaction has been initiated.
- waits a specific amount of block confirmations (12 block confirmations for supported EVM chains, and 256 block confirmations for Polygon network) to ensure the finality of the transaction where the event has been emitted,
- validates the args and the structure,
- if the data is correct, sign the message with its own private key, and publish the signature to Arweave.
After the minimum required number of validators have signed the message (eight at the time of writing, ⅔ of all possible signatures), the submission is confirmed and may be claimed on the destination chain.
You can access the actual minimum required number of signatures by querying the
minConfirmationsproperty of the
To claim the submission, a claiming transaction should be crafted, signed, and sent to the blockchain. Such transaction must contain a call to the
claim()method of the
deBridgeGatecontract with the submission's data (taken from the
Sentevent) and minimal required number of validators' signatures provided as its args.
Worth mentioning that such transactions may be signed and sent by anyone who is willing to pay the gas for its' execution on the destination chain. There is no security implication because during the claiming phase the
deBridgeGatecontract first checks the integrity of the message (the args and the
autoParamsstruct that was initially passed to the
send()method on the origin chain) by verifying each validator's signature against their public key, and then executing the instructions this message contains.
There are three ways to trigger a claiming txn:
- manually, by visiting deExplorer, where you can find your cross-chain transaction by its
submissionIdor even by the hash of the origin transaction, then sign the prepared claiming transaction using the browser wallet (MetaMask, etc);
- automatically, by specifying sufficient
executionFeeproperty within your submission: in this case, Claimers will execute the transaction and deliver the message in case the supplied on the source chain
executionFee(included gas) covers their gas on the destination chain. Claimer may wait to deliver the message (submission) in case of gas price spikes (if the value of the included gas becomes less than the cost of execution). In this case, you should trigger a claiming txn on your own, either manually or programmatically, and you'll receive back the supplied included gas (instead of the Claimer service);
After the claiming txn is sent and included in the blockchain, and the
deBridgeGate.claim()call succeeds, a special
Claimedevent is emitted by the
deBridgeGatecontract signaling the successful completion of the cross-chain transaction. Voila!